American Stalinism Then and Now The left has readopted its s purge-happy mindset, in spirit if not in substance. Library of Congress Eighty years ago, many American intellectuals, particularly those who regarded themselves as the vanguard of progressivism, were devout Stalinists. That is, they believed—and believed passionately—that the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, not the United States, represented the wave of the future.
Kerber 's article "The Republican Mother: Women and the Enlightenment - An American Perspective", she compared republican motherhood to the Spartan model of childhood,  where children are raised to sacrifice their own needs for the greater good of the country.
By doing so, the mothers would encourage their sons to pursue and roles in the government, while their daughters would perpetuate the domestic sphere with the next generation. In addition, women were permitted to receive more of an education than they previously had been allowed.
Abigail Adams advocated women's education, as demonstrated in many of her letters to her husband, the president John Adams see Abigail Adams. Religion[ edit ] Many atheists, such as the Reverend Thomas Bernardactively protested the ideals of republican motherhood.
They believed this American industrialization essay the appropriate path for women, as opposed to the more public roles promoted by Mary Wollstonecraft and her contemporaries. Traditionally, women had been viewed as morally inferior to men, especially in the areas of sexuality and religion.
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Especially influential were the writings of Lydia Maria ChildCatharine Maria Sedgwickand Lydia Sigourneywho developed the role of republican motherhood as a principle that united state and family by equating a successful republic with virtuous families.
Women, as intimate and concerned observers of young children, were best suited to this role. American industrialization essay the s, these New England writers became respected models and were advocates for improving education for females.
Greater educational access included making once male-only subjects of classical education, such as mathematics and philosophy, integral to curricula at public and private schools for girls. The number of girls' academic schools in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic increased rapidly beginning in the midth century.
By the late 19th century, such schools were extending and reinforcing the tradition of women as educators and supervisors of American moral and ethical values.
It was first used in to describe the American ideal by the historian Linda K. Kerberin her article "The Republican Mother: Intellect and Ideology in Revolutionary America. The early seeds of the concept are found in the works of John Lockethe notable seventeenth-century philosopher, particularly his Two Treatises of Government.
In his First Treatise, he included women in social theory, and in his Second Treatise defined their roles more clearly. As Kerber quotes in her essay, Locke wrote: Women were expected to focus on domestic issues, but Locke's treatises helped appreciation of the value of the domestic sphere.
Although Locke argued less in support of women after he had dissected Filmore's writings, his treatises were influential in highlighting the role of women in society. Long-term influence[ edit ] Although the notion of republican motherhood initially encouraged women in their private roles, it eventually resulted in increased educational opportunities for American women, as typified by Mary Lyon and the founding in of "Mount Holyoke Female Seminary", later Mount Holyoke College.
The ideal produced women with initiative and independence; as Kerber says, it was "one side of an inherently paradoxical ideology of republican motherhood that legitimized political sophistication and activity.
Working on civil rights for enslaved people caused women to realize they themselves were enslaved by the patriarchy and wanted rights for themselves, giving rise to the Seneca Falls Convention ofand the women's rights movement in the United States.
They worked for suffrage, property rights, legal status and child custody in family disputes. The movement likely owes a debt to the emphasis on republican motherhood of fifty years before.
The origins of republican motherhood[ edit ] The first presence of republican motherhood was seen in Classical Rome during the years BC to CE. In the eyes of Classical Romans, the familia, or family, was the core of their civilization, and this yielded relatively healthy marriages between Roman men and women.
Global Perspectives, she details the "model marriage" through the eyes of Classical Romans as "one in which husbands and wives were loyal to one another and shared interests, activities, and property.
This was a rare privilege in Classical civilizations, as women were barred from obtaining education in most cultures around the globe at this time. The example in Rome has been used in more recent times all across the world in the fight for women's suffrage, and was a main argument that mothers and women made in the United States during the years leading up towhen the 19th Amendment finally awarded women the right to vote.The table below presents an abbreviated geologic time scale, with times and events germane to this essay.
Please refer to a complete geologic time scale when this one seems inadequate. Welcome to the American Perspectives Volume I eText Website for Houston Community College. Follow the instructions below to redeem the access code found in the Pearson Learning Solutions Student Access Kit that was packaged with your book.
- The industrialization has made a huge imprint on American society, especially towards the working class and the elites. Although the industrial revolution shaped Americans greatly, it did not shape the working class and the elites comparatively; what was essential for .
Outline of History; Prehistory — Prehistory, the rise of civilization, and the ancient Middle East to c B.C.E. Prehistory to c BCE — Unit 1: Prehistory and the rise of Civilization to c B.C.E.. FC1 — Biological, Cultural, and Technological Evolution in History; FC2 — A Possible Scenario of Human Evolution; FC3 — A Possible Scenario .
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