Introduction In recent years, there has been growing interest in meaning research. In addition to the numerous journal articles on meaning e. However, in spite of the central role of meaning, we still do not have a comprehensive theoretical framework that is capable of incorporating most of the empirical findings on meaning research and logotherapy Frankl,
Tobacco was ranked 3rd in dependence, 14th in physical harm, and 12th in social harm. Among male smokers, the lifetime risk of developing lung cancer is This risk is significantly lower in nonsmokers: With the postwar rise in popularity of cigarette smoking came a virtual epidemic of lung cancer.
However, if someone stops smoking, then these chances gradually decrease as the damage to their body is repaired. A year after quitting, the risk of contracting heart disease is half that of a continuing smoker. Risks vary according to the amount of tobacco smoked, with those who smoke more at greater risk.
Smoking so-called "light" cigarettes does not reduce the risk. SCLC may originate from neuroendocrine cells located in the bronchus called Feyrter cells. The corresponding estimates for lifelong nonsmokers are a 1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD caused by smoking, is a permanent, incurable often terminal reduction of pulmonary capacity characterised by shortness of breath, wheezing, persistent cough with sputumand damage to the lungs, including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Tobacco stains on primarily the second and third fingers of a heavy smoker Inhalation of tobacco smoke causes several immediate responses within the heart and blood vessels. Within one minute the heart rate begins to rise, increasing by as much as 30 percent during the first 10 minutes of smoking.
Carbon monoxide in tobacco smoke exerts negative effects by reducing the blood's ability to carry oxygen.
According to a study by an international team of researcherspeople under 40 are five times more likely to have a heart attack if they smoke. Furthermore, the ratio of high-density lipoprotein HDL, also known as the "good" cholesterol to low-density lipoprotein LDL, also known as the "bad" cholesterol tends to be lower in smokers compared to non-smokers.
Smoking also raises the levels of fibrinogen and increases platelet production both involved in blood clotting which makes the blood thicker and more likely to clot. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin the oxygen-carrying component in red blood cellsresulting in a much stabler complex than hemoglobin bound with oxygen or carbon dioxide—the result is permanent loss of blood cell functionality.
Blood cells are naturally recycled after a certain period of time, allowing for the creation of new, functional red blood cells. However, if carbon monoxide exposure reaches a certain point before they can be recycled, hypoxia and later death occurs. All these factors make smokers more at risk of developing various forms of arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries.
As the arteriosclerosis progresses, blood flows less easily through rigid and narrowed blood vessels, making the blood more likely to form a thrombosis clot.
Sudden blockage of a blood vessel may lead to an infarction stroke or heart attack. However, it is also worth noting that the effects of smoking on the heart may be more subtle. These conditions may develop gradually given the smoking-healing cycle the human body heals itself between periods of smokingand therefore a smoker may develop less significant disorders such as worsening or maintenance of unpleasant dermatological conditions, e.
Smoking also increases blood pressure and weakens blood vessels. Smokers are at a significantly increased risk for chronic kidney disease than non-smokers. Influenza was also more severe in the smokers; Influenza incidence among smokers of 1 to 20 cigarettes daily was intermediate between non-smokers and heavy cigarette smokers.
However, smoking also increases the risk for various other oral diseases, some almost completely exclusive to tobacco users. The National Institutes of Healththrough the National Cancer Institutedetermined in that "cigar smoking causes a variety of cancers including cancers of the oral cavity lip, tongue, mouth, throatesophaguslarynxand lung.
Smokeless tobacco causes gingival recession and white mucosal lesions. Smokers have significantly greater loss of bone height than nonsmokers, and the trend can be extended to pipe smokers to have more bone loss than nonsmokers.
Smoking more than 20 cigarettes a day increases the risk of by two to four times,   and being a current smoker has been linked to a fourfold increase in the risk of invasive disease caused by the pathogenic bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Nicotine and other harmful chemicals in cigarettes interfere with the body's ability to create estrogena hormone that regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation.
Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesisuterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium.
However, the stress levels of adult smokers are slightly higher than those of nonsmokers, adolescent smokers report increasing levels of stress as they develop regular patterns of smoking, and smoking cessation leads to reduced stress. Far from acting as an aid for mood control, nicotine dependency seems to exacerbate stress.
This is confirmed in the daily mood patterns described by smokers, with normal moods during smoking and worsening moods between cigarettes.The effects of radiation exposure fall into two main classes: deterministic effects, where the effect is certain to occur under given conditions (e.g.
individuals exposed to several grays over a short period of time will definitely suffer Acute Radiation Syndrome); and stochastic effects, where the effect may or may not occur (e.g. an increase in radiation exposure may or may not induce a.
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By , just five years after Confederate surrender and thirteen years after the Dred Scott . This session gives you a sneak peek at some of the top-scoring posters across a variety of topics through rapid-fire presentations.
The featured abstracts were chosen by the Program Committee and are marked by a microphone in the online program. attheheels.com has been an NCCRS member since October The mission of attheheels.com is to make education accessible to everyone, everywhere.
Students can save on their education by taking the attheheels.com online, self-paced courses and earn widely transferable college credit recommendations for a fraction of the cost of a traditional course. Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
The net benefits of human capital flight for the receiving country are sometimes referred to as a "brain gain" whereas the net costs for the sending country are sometimes referred to as a "brain drain".
In occupations that experience a surplus of graduates, immigration of foreign-trained. Video: Reconstruction in the South: Positive & Negative Effects In this lesson, we'll explore the positive and negative effects of Reconstruction on the people of the South.