Implications for Practice By: Sharon Vaughn, Marie Tejero Hughes, Sally Watson Moody, and Batya Elbaum After discussion of each grouping format, implications for practice are highlighted with particular emphasis on instructional practices that promote effective grouping to meet the needs of all students during reading in general education classrooms. In the last 5 years, two issues in education have assumed considerable importance: With respect to reading instruction, the issue has been twofold:
Reading fluency is the ability to read text not just accurately, but also quickly and effortlessly. Fluency is characterized by appropriate intonation and expression during oral reading, as well as by a high degree of accuracy and speed in recognizing individual words in the text.
Accurate word decoding is necessary, though not sufficient, for fluent reading. First, if students need to put effort into reading individual words, they tend to lose comprehension. Second, students with poor fluency often experience reading as laborious and difficult, so they lose motivation to read.
Lack of motivation to read results in less practice, further compounding the difficulties of struggling readers. And third, as they advance in school, students with poor fluency have difficulty keeping up with the high volume of reading required for academic success beyond the elementary grades.
Patterns of difficulties in students with reading disabilities Among students with reading disabilities, two patterns of difficulties are especially common. In the first pattern, a student has difficulty reading words accurately and also reads in a slow, labored fashion.
In the second pattern, a student may have achieved reasonably accurate word decoding, especially after remediation in phonemic awareness and phonics, but still reads very slowly relative to other students his or her age.
Fluency deficits in individuals with reading disabilities may be linked to several underlying factors.
One especially important factor involves a cumulative lack of exposure to printed words. Struggling readers receive much less exposure to words e. In addition, some scientific investigators have linked problems in developing reading fluency to underlying deficits in naming speed, or the speed with which children can retrieve the names of familiar items, such as letters or numbers.
Other researchers view these difficulties as reflecting a single underlying phonological deficit, the core deficit in most individuals with reading disabilities. The use of fluency measures in early identification Measures involving fluency can be very useful in identifying at-risk readers in the early elementary grades.
Depending on the age of the children, these measures may involve identifying letters, reading real words or nonsense made-up words out of context, or reading grade-appropriate passages. Thus, fluency measures can be used in general education settings to monitor the progress of all children and to identify early those who are in need of additional help.
Early identification and appropriate intervention which may or may not include special education can help to prevent the cumulative deficits which make it so difficult for older struggling readers to catch up to their age peers.
Instruction and remediation in fluency Once serious fluency problems have developed, they can be resistant to remediation. However, several approaches have shown promise for addressing fluency difficulties.
An especially helpful technique involves repeated oral readings of text under timed conditions.
In this technique, the teacher selects an appropriate level passageone that is not too difficultfor a child to read aloud repeatedly. The child rereads the passage until he or she reaches a predetermined criterion for accuracy and rate, then moves on to another, more difficult passage.
A somewhat similar approach, but one that does not necessarily use timing, involves having children reread familiar books aloud several times, with appropriate guidance and feedback from the teacher.
Other approaches to developing reading fluency include the use of timed speed drills on individual words e.
Teaching basic phonics and skills for decoding multisyllabic words, such as syllabication strategies and structural analysis, is essential for students whose reading is not accurate. Without a foundation of accurate decoding, students cannot become fluent. Rather, fluency must be directly addressed, through the kinds of approaches discussed above, as part of a comprehensive program of reading instruction.
Examples of sources Peer-reviewed journal articles Carver, R. Investigating reading achievement using a causal model. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis.
The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes.Jul 11, · Reading education articles and research on topics like literacy assessments and more. ProLiteracy is pleased to announce the launch of Adult Literacy Education: The International Journal of Literacy, Language, and Numeracy.
This online, peer reviewed, themed research journal will be published by ProLiteracy twice a year in partnership with Rutgers University, and in collaboration with journal editors Alisa Belzer, Amy D. Rose, and Heather Brown. ILA Updates.
Read about the inner workings of the International Literacy Association—including Board minutes, committee and task force news, special project announcements, and more—on the ILA Updates page. About the Mid-South Literacy Journal. The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in partnership with The Mid-South Reading/Writing Institute, has established this peer-reviewed online journal, The Mid-South Literacy Journal (MLJ).
Patterns of literacy learning in German primary schools over the summer and the influence of home literacy practices Frauke Meyer, Kane Meissel and Stuart McNaughton This award, launched in , is given annually for research judged to be exemplary in either of UKLA’s journals - Journal of Research in Reading and Literacy.
Pair these students with a “reading buddy,” a “writing buddy,” and/or a “language buddy,” a supportive partner who can model language and literacy. The ELL student can also be a literacy buddy for a younger student as they both begin to step into English literacy.