The Feminization of Poverty The majority of the 1.
A full consideration of Addams significantly revises understanding the origins of service-learning, suggesting service-learning has its origins as a practice, not a theory; in the community, not the university; and among women, not men.
It was, instead, pioneering work, the understanding of which should reframe thinking about the history and significance of service-learning. Though the service-learning movement has paid more attention to its history than most movements for educational reform, the history it has crafted has taken an unusual form.
In this, the history of a movement about community-campus partnerships for action has been written largely as a history of ideas emerging from a university.
Nonetheless, if the movement is to learn from its origins, it needs to take a fuller look at them. There have been attempts to expand the early history of service-learning, including efforts to include Jane Addams among the early pioneers of community service in American culture along with Dewey and Dorothy Day from Keith Morton and John Saltmarsh Ira Harkavy and John Puckett use Hull House as a model for contemporary urban universities, especially the partnerships at University of Pennsylvania.
Jane Addams School for Democracy uses the legacy of Hull House to inspire a long-term community-university partnership between the University of Minnesota and the West Side neighborhood of St.
In addition, Charles Stevens has done pioneering work on the African-American origins of service-learning Stevens, Addams allows us a glimpse into the origins of service- learning as a practice, as opposed to a theory. And it places the origins of service-learning squarely in the movement for the expansion of the role of women in public life.
Gender and the Origins of Service-Learning Jane Addams was born in and came of age during a time of social, political, and intellectual upheaval.
The assumptions that undergirded pre- Civil War America—that there ought to be rough economic equality between citizens, that agriculture was central to American economic life, and that women were principally responsible for raising and training their children—were all shaken after the Civil War.
Once there, women found that the possibility of factory work dismantled traditional assumptions about their proper work. Factories often recruited female workers, who could be paid lower salaries than their male colleagues.
In the industrial cities of the American North, then, women found their roles in flux. On one hand, traditional social and family expectations were weakening.
But on the other hand, political and intellectual stereotypes of women held fast. Women were forbidden to vote, a move justified in part by the intellectual position that men were, by nature, public beings, while women were naturally more concerned with the private, domestic sphere. The divergence between social roles and political expectations of women was most obvious in education.
More girls attended school, more women became teachers, and more women entered college. But for college educated women in the late 19th century, schooling was a mixed blessing. Jane Addams was among this generation of col lege educated women.
She attended Rockford Female Seminary, which was in the process of transitioning from a finishing school to liberal arts college when Addams was there. When Addams graduated from Rockford she went to medical school, and then, after a prolonged illness, to Europe.
Her travels marked a period of deep dissatisfaction, both because they followed on the death of her father and because they highlighted the gap between her training and the possibilities available to her as a middle-class woman with a higher education Lagemann, Like many of her cohorts, Addams eventually rebelled against the separation of women from the public sphere.
She did this by asserting that in industrial society, the domestic, private work of women was inevitably public, and the public sphere inevitably influenced the quality of family life. No matter how spotless the home, urban women could not keep their children well if sewage ran in the streets; women forced by poverty to work in factories could never guarantee the virtuous upbringing of their children.
It drove her to found Hull House, a place that was at once a home and a political center.
And it determined the process by which she carried out her work. Addams constantly measured her practice against both the stories of individual women and the most significant political and educational trends of her time Seigfried, Practice, Culture, and Reflection When Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull House in Chicago inthey saw its work to be largely about providing cultural uplift to the immigrant families who lived in the surrounding neighborhoods.
To this end they began, among other things, an art lending program, wherein Hull House loaned copies of paintings by European masters to families for display in their tenements. Addams was originally quite pleased with the lending program, bringing, as it did, some beauty to rundown homes.
Upon reflection, though, Addams and Starr decided that uplift alone was not sufficient. Hull House quickly revised the way it made decisions about programming, rejecting a top-down model for a collaborative one. Uplift also included false assumptions about the people providing the charity.
By defining them as culturally outside the community, it erected unnecessary barriers between service-providers and recipients.
Many of the difficulties in philanthropy come from an unconscious division of the world into the philanthropists and those to be helped. It is an assumption of two classes, and against this class assumption our democratic training revolts as soon as we begin to act upon it.
A copy of a Rembrandt hanging in one apartment uplifted only those few people who entered the apartment; a public lecture on Rembrandt could reach hundreds.
Hull House maintained its art lending program. But as Addams, Hull House workers, and their neighbors worked to improve the whole community, they added to the lending program a huge list of other cultural events lectures, plays, concerts, and museum exhibits.Eleanor Roosevelt not only was the longest serving First Lady, but perhaps except for Hillary Clinton, she is surely the most influential First Lady in American History.
· Feminization of poverty is the social process in which the incidence of poverty among women becomes much higher than among men. Diana Pearce, director of the Center for Women's Welfare, coined the term Feminization of Poverty in attheheels.com · In , Diana Pearce coined the term, "the feminization of poverty" after conducting research and noticing that a disproportionate number of women struggled with income poverty within the United States, as well as globally.
At the time of Pearce's research, two-thirds of the poor who were over age 16 were attheheels.comound · Causes · Forms of Poverty · Measures of poverty · Religionattheheels.com Welfare dependency is the state in which a person or household is reliant on government welfare benefits for their income for a prolonged period of time, and without which they would not be able to meet the expenses of daily living.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services defines welfare dependency as the proportion of all . · Despite the overall poverty rate declining in America, 18 million women remain below the poverty line.
That’s one in seven American women – and 40% of women who head up families. Women are poorer than men in every state, regardless of education or geographic attheheels.com://attheheels.com · defined poverty in monetary terms, using levels of income or consumption to measure poverty (Grusky and Kanbur, 11) and defining the poor by a headcount of those who fall below a given income/consumption level or ‘poverty line’ (Lipton and Ravallion, 1).attheheels.com