Lenin wanted members "who recognise the Party Programme and support it by material means  and by personal participation in one of the party's organisations". Martov suggested "by regular personal assistance under the direction of one of the party's organisations". Lenin advocated limiting party membership to a smaller core of active members as opposed to " card carriers " who might only be active in party branches from time to time or not at all. This active base would develop the cadre, a core of " professional revolutionaries ", consisting of loyal communists who would spend most of their time organising the party toward a mass revolutionary party capable of leading a workers' revolution against the Tsarist autocracy.
The first quarter of the 19th century was dominated by Romantic poetry. Moreover, the term, which represents the perspective of modern scholars seeking to trace the origin of later Russian works, obscures the fact that the East Slavic peoples of the lands then called Rus are the ancestors of the Ukrainian and Belarusian as well as of the Russian people of today.
Works of the oldest Kievan period also led to modern Ukrainian and Belarusian literature. Third, the literary language established in Kievan Rus was Church Slavonicwhich, despite the gradual increase of local East Slavic variants, linked the culture to the wider community known as Slavia orthodoxa—that is, to the Eastern Orthodox South Slavs of the Balkans.
Fourth, some have questioned whether these texts can properly be called literary, if by that term is meant works that are designed to serve a primarily aesthetic function, inasmuch as these writings were generally written to serve ecclesiastic or utilitarian purposes.
The Kievan period The Kievan period so called because Kiev was the seat of the grand princes extends from the Christianization of Russia in to the conquest of Russia by the Tatars Mongols in the 13th century.
Russia received Christianity from Byzantium rather than from Rome, a fact of decisive importance for the development of Russian culture. Whereas Catholic Poland was closely linked to cultural developments in western Europe, Orthodox Russia was isolated from the West for long periods and, at times, regarded its culture as dangerous.
Conversion by Byzantium also meant that the language of the church could be the vernacular rather than, as in the West, Latin; this was another factor that worked against the absorption of Western culture.
Russia was not the first Slavic culture to be converted to Christianity, and a standardized language, the Old Church Slavonic pioneered in the 9th century by Saints Cyril or Constantine and Methodiuswas already available.
Bulgariawhich had been Christianized a century earlier and had offered a home to the Cyrillo-Methodian community, became a conduit for the transmission of Greek culture, translated into Old Church Slavonic, to Russia, which in turn rapidly established its own scribal activities in copying and translating.
Thus a significant literary activity of the Kievan period consisted of translating or adapting borrowed works. It is worth stressing that the enormous prestige accorded to translating has continued to be a distinctive characteristic of Russian culture.
During the Kievan period the selection of translated foreign works circulating in Russia by and large reflected the interests of the church: Ostromirovo evangeliye The Ostromir Gospel of —57 is the oldest dated Russian manuscript.
Versions of the four Gospels, the Book of Revelationguidebooks of monastic rules, homilies, hagiographic collections, and prayers reflect the religious interests of the clerical community.
But, on the whole, translations offered a rather limited access to Greek culture aside from the ecclesiastical. Other significant homiletic works were written by Clement of Smolensk, metropolitan of Russia from toand by St.
Cyril of Turov — Both a chronicle account and two lives of Boris and Gleb, the first Russian saints, have survived to the present day.
The sanctity of these two men, who were killed by their brother Svyatopolk in a struggle for the throne, consists not in activity but in the pious passivity with which, in imitation of Christ, they accepted death. This ideal of passive acceptance of suffering was to exercise a long-lasting influence on Russian thought.
The monk Nestor c. The Kievo-Pechersky paterik The Paterik of the Kievan Caves Monasteryclosely related to hagiographycollects stories from the lives of monks, along with other religious writings.
The tradition of pilgrimage literature also begins in this period. Composed between andthe Igor Tale, as it is generally known, was discovered in by Count Musin-Pushkin.
The manuscript was destroyed in the Moscow fire of ; however, a copy made for Catherine II the Great survived. Its theme is the disastrous fratricidal disunity of the Russian princes. Eventually the grand princes of Moscow succeeded in defeating the Tatars and subduing the principalities.
The exception was the lands under the rule of the Lithuanian-Polish kingdom, and this division initiated the development of separate Ukrainian and Belarusian cultural traditions.
Once the Russian lands were united, Tsar Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible; reigned —84 undertook a campaign against the remaining power of the old aristocracy boyars. A rather weak imitation of the Igor Tale, the Zadonshchina attributed to Sofony of Ryazan and composed no later than glorifies Dmitry Donskoy.
Possessors and Nonpossessors A theological and political controversy of great significance took place between St. These positions were disputed by Nil and his followers, especially Vassian Patrikeyev d.The Bolsheviks, founded by Vladimir Lenin and Alexander Bogdanov, were by a major organization consisting primarily of workers under a democratic internal hierarchy governed by the principle of democratic centralism, who considered themselves the leaders of the revolutionary working class of .
How and Why Did the Bolsheviks Gain Power in - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Role of Lenin in Bolshevik consolidation of Power.
Meiji Restoration Essay Lenin issued a proclamation for complete seizure of power for his party. and their ability to take advantage of political and social. Russian literature, the body of written works produced in the Russian language, beginning with the Christianization of Kievan Rus in the late 10th century.
The most celebrated period of Russian literature was the 19th century, which produced, in a remarkably short period, some of the indisputable. Trotsky and Sverdlov now stood at the fore, and it was they who organized the Bolshevik seizure of power, which occurred--over the objections of Kamenev and others, but with Stalin's support--in November of Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
This view stands in contrast to the "organic," or non-linear, view of history first put forward by the renowned philosopher and historian, Oswald Spengler, early in the 20th century.
Modern history . Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Pavel Dybenko Vladimir Antonov-Ovseyenko: Alexander Kerensky Pyotr Krasnov: These were the beginnings of the Bolsheviks' consolidation of power over their political opponents.
Russian Revolution () Kiev Bolshevik Uprising; Dissolution of the Soviet Union, 74 years later () Notes.