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Total war A woman at work in a munitions factory during World War I World War I was a total war, involving the governments, economies and populations of participating nations to an extent never seen before in history. Governments played an active and interventionist role, passing laws that would be intolerable during peacetime.
Ministers and departments took control of economic production, nationalising factories, determining production targets, allocating manpower and resources. Conscription was introduced to bolster military forces and resources like ships, trains or vehicles were commandeered for military purposes.
Wartime governments also acted to protect national security, by implementing press censorship, curfews and strict punishments for breaches and violations. They also made extensive use of propaganda, both to raise public morale and to raise money through war bonds.
Britain initiated total war from the outset. A week after the declaration of war, the parliament at Westminster passed the Defence of the Realm Act.
This legislation empowered the government to secure the nation from internal threat or invasion, by handing it wide-ranging powers, including censorship, the authority to imprison without trial and the power to court martial and execute civilians. Control of the press and communication media was particularly stringent.
Government agencies and the military were authorised to prevent the publication of offensive or dangerous material in newspapers and books; to open and censor civilian mail; and to tap into telegraph and telephone communications. As the war progressed, new restrictions were added to the legislation.
Daylight saving was introduced to provide more working hours in the day. Alcohol consumption was restricted, opening hours of pubs were cut back and beer was watered down to reduce its strength.
It became illegal to light bonfires or fly kites, both of which might attract enemy airships. A cartoon depicting the surge in British artillery shell production in The British economy was also shifted to a total war footing. Under the Defence of the Realm Act the government could requisition any land or building deemed necessary for the war effort.
A new portfolio was created: Construction of a massive factory capable of producing tons of cordite a day was ordered, while other factories were nationalised and retooled for the production of artillery shells.
British production of shells increased by more than per cent. The government also formed departments to coordinate other areas of the economy, including food, labour and maritime transport. Munitions aside, the other pressing demand was for food, both for the military and the civilian population.
Westminster seized control of unused land for farming, including parks, commons and disused blocks. Rationing was introduced and food queues became the norm. Food became so valuable that it was a criminal offence to feed bread to animals or to throw rice at weddings. This French poster advertises the sale of war bonds, to help fund the war effort In Germany, Walter Rathenau was put in charge of the Kriegsrohstoffabteilung, or War Raw Materials Department.
But after two years these resources were severely depleted, and by production levels were falling. Military commanders Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff implemented a series of reforms to double production of military needs. The Oberster Kriegsamt, or Supreme War Office, was formed to control and coordinate all aspects of wartime production, labour, industry and transport.
The Auxiliary Service Law, passed in lateempowered the government to employ and relocate any adult males it needed to meet its labour needs. More than two million men were forced out of the agricultural sector to work in weapons and munitions production.
This had the desired military outcome, however the reallocation of labour saw production of both food and consumer goods plummet. These shortages, exacerbated by the ongoing Allied blockade, led to critical food shortages by the winter of World War I essays / Compare And Contrast The U.S.
Reactions To World War I In With Its Reactiob Compare and contrast the U.S.
reactions to World War I in with its reactiob to World war II on World War I started in the year Total Waste of Time, Total War: Canada Essay - After the declaring war on Germany, Canada was excited to join Britain on the battlefield. As a result, many Canadians ran to sign up for World War I. They were desperate to prove their existence and capabilities as a nation to Britain.
In this essay, we shall examine and evaluate how a few aspects of WWI, including conscription, rationing, the involvement of women and youths, the attacking of civilians and propaganda reflected the abovementioned characteristics, ultimately showing that WWI was a total war.
There are many reasons why WWI was a total war for Britain. However, these are some main aspects to answer the question," why?"; 1The changed of the whole economic policy to focus on war gears and supplies, the used of the conscripted civilians and volunteeraly civilians to fight, work,or support the war effort, women was included.
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WWI: Technology and the weapons of war. or zeppelins, and large bomber planes to drop bombs on British and French cities. Britain retaliated by bombing German cities.
Back on the ground, the tank proved to be the answer to stalemate in the trenches. a former United States Army officer who served in Vietnam, studied World War I for more.